3D-printed houses: a new horizon in the construction industry

Recently, the construction world was shaken by an innovation capable of radically changing the established methods of house building. This novelty is the technology of 3D printing in construction, offering revolutionary approaches in this area. Thanks to this technology, the construction process is not only significantly accelerated and becomes cheaper, but also paves the way for the creation of more environmentally friendly and affordable housing. In this article, we will delve into the study of how 3D printing is transforming the construction sector, consider its current capabilities, potential benefits, and the obstacles that need to be overcome for its widespread distribution.

Date: 20 November

3D printing technology in construction 

3D printing in construction utilizes layer-by-layer material application technology, typically concrete, to create structural elements of a house. This process significantly accelerates construction, reducing the time it takes to erect walls and main structural elements from several weeks to just a few days. Large construction printers are used, which can vary in size depending on the scale of the project. These printers are equipped with nozzles that precisely distribute the building material, most often a special type of concrete. Special types of concrete or other building mixtures are used for printing, which quickly harden and provide the necessary strength. Specialized software is used for designing structures and programming the printer's movement path. This allows for the creation of complex architectural forms with high precision.

Advantages and disadvantages


  • Speed of Construction: Reduces building time to just a few days.
  • Cost Reduction: Decreases in labor and materials can lower overall construction costs by 20-40%.
  • Sustainability and Eco-friendliness: Use of fewer materials and the potential for using recycled materials make 3D-printed houses more environmentally friendly.


  • Design Limitations: Design possibilities might be limited by the capabilities of the printer.
  • Technical Complexities: Need for precise calibration and maintenance of equipment.
  • Insufficient Regulation: Lack of standards and norms in some regions.

TECLA Project, Italy

The TECLA project, developed by the Italian architectural masters from Mario Cucinella Architects (MCA) and 3D printing specialists from WASP, represents a unique structure constructed in 2021 in Ravenna, Italy. This house, built using two large-scale 3D printers, is the first of its kind and marks a new era in architecture and urban planning, where innovative technologies serve to realize the concept of "empathic architecture" - an approach that considers both environmental and social aspects of construction.

In today's world, where the construction industry is increasing carbon dioxide emissions and there is a growing demand for affordable housing, the TECLA project offers effective solutions to these problems. The use of environmentally friendly building materials and innovative technologies such as 3D printing helps to reduce the environmental impact of construction processes and provides more affordable alternatives for housing construction.

TECLA, a name derived from the fusion of the words "technology" and "clay," is the result of many years of research aimed at creating a house from local materials that would be not only environmentally friendly but also affordable. Twelve years of research and development in the field of various types of soil, 3D printing control algorithms, and other aspects led to the creation of this innovative house.

During the construction of TECLA, two Crane WASP 3D printers were used simultaneously, allowing the building to be completed in just 200 hours. The efficiency of this system was achieved through the development of 7,000 machine codes that optimized the 3D printing process and eliminated the possibility of collisions between the printing mechanisms.

The TECLA house, consisting of two interconnecting domes encompassing living and sleeping areas, can function entirely autonomously, utilizing rainwater recycling systems and solar panels. The material of the walls, made entirely of recyclable soil, emphasizes the ecological foundation of the project. The creators of TECLA see it as an example of the future of architecture and urban planning, where recycling and advanced technologies become key elements in the continuous evolution of urban spaces.

Company ICON, USA

ICON, a company based in the USA, has introduced Vulcan to the world – a printer that goes beyond traditional 3D printing. This printer is capable of constructing homes up to 60 square meters in just 24 hours – a task that previously seemed impossible. Vulcan operates on the technology of layer-by-layer application of building materials, allowing for the rapid and efficient creation of buildings.

ICON, based in Austin, is one of the leaders in the field of construction 3D printing, even competing with giants such as China's WinSun. The company already has many successful projects in its arsenal, including pilot homes and affordable housing programs in Austin and Mexico. 

ICON has introduced several of its 3D-printed homes to the real estate market. In addition, the company is actively collaborating with NASA on the creation of 3D-printed habitable structures on the Moon. However, ICON continues to focus primarily on construction on Earth, starting a new project called House Zero. 

This name - "House Zero" - symbolizes the beginning of a series of experimental constructions aimed at testing the latest construction methods, implementing intelligent and energy-efficient technologies, and exploring innovative approaches in architecture. The first building of this series includes three bedrooms and three bathrooms, with a total area of 220 square meters.

The key element of the project is the third-generation Vulcan 3D printer, an advanced version of previous models. The printer operates twice as fast as its predecessors and covers a working area one and a half times larger, reaching 280 square meters. The equipment weighs 4.3 tons, and its operation is fully automated and controlled via a mobile app.

According to Jason Ballard, co-founder and CEO of ICON, House Zero will be the most outstanding example of a 3D-printed house in the world. He emphasizes that such a project demonstrates new possibilities in architectural design and will become a catalyst for growing interest in future construction and architectural technologies.

Eindhoven, Netherlands

In the city of Eindhoven, Netherlands, a unique and ambitious project was realized - the construction of the world's first residential area consisting entirely of 3D-printed houses. This project marked a significant step forward in exploring the potential of 3D printing in mass housing construction.

The project, named "Project Milestone," was the result of collaboration between local authorities, universities, and construction companies. The aim of the project was not only to create affordable housing but also to explore the possibilities of 3D printing as a revolutionary technology in the field of construction.

The houses in the Eindhoven area were distinguished by their unique design and functionality. Each house was designed with not only aesthetic qualities in mind but also the comfort of living. A feature of these houses is their ability to adapt to the needs and preferences of residents, as well as to changes in climate and the environment.

The project in Eindhoven has become an example for other cities and countries, demonstrating that 3D printing can be a key element in solving global housing construction problems. This innovation opens new horizons for the construction industry, making the building process faster and more accessible.

The project of a residential area with 3D-printed houses in Eindhoven has become an important stage in the development of construction technologies. It not only demonstrates the possibilities of 3D printing in creating housing but also points to a future in which construction can become more adaptive, environmentally friendly, and accessible to all segments of the population. This project is a vivid example of how innovative technologies can transform the industry and improve people's quality of life.

Current market state and future prospects

Currently, the technology of 3D printing in the construction industry is still in its early stages of development but shows promising growth. According to forecasts by the analytical company MarketsandMarkets, the market value of 3D printing in construction is expected to grow from $1.2 billion, recorded in 2020, to approximately $6.5 billion by 2026. This growth not only improves and optimizes the technology but also makes 3D-printed homes more accessible to a wider range of consumers.

This progress opens up important prospects for providing affordable housing in regions of the world where it is extremely necessary. This is particularly relevant for developing countries and areas suffering from the consequences of natural disasters. Thanks to the speed and cost-effectiveness of 3D printing, the construction of housing in these regions can be significantly accelerated, allowing for prompt solutions to housing shortages. Additionally, this building technology opens up new possibilities for architectural creativity, allowing for the development of complex and unique designs at more affordable prices.

Overcoming barriers: the path to widespread adoption of 3D printing in construction 

To achieve widespread adoption of 3D printing technology in construction, several key obstacles must be overcome.

Firstly, regulatory constraints need to be addressed. Existing building codes and standards often do not account for the specifics of 3D printing, requiring a review and adaptation to new technologies.

Secondly, ensuring the quality and durability of 3D-printed structures is crucial. Despite progress, further research and testing are necessary to ensure that such buildings are safe, weather-resistant, and durable.

The third issue concerns the accessibility and cost of 3D printing equipment and materials. While 3D printing promises to reduce overall construction costs, the initial investment in the necessary equipment and materials can still be significant.

Additionally, the training of qualified personnel is an important aspect. Workers and engineers need to be trained in new methods of work and maintenance of specialized equipment.

Finally, there is a need to increase public awareness and trust in 3D-printed buildings. Despite numerous advantages, many potential investors are still unfamiliar with this technology or doubt its reliability and practicality.


3D-printed houses represent an innovative direction in construction. Given their cost-effectiveness, speed of construction, and eco-friendliness, they can become an important element in solving global housing issues. At the same time, it is necessary to consider and solve technical and regulatory issues to achieve wider adoption of this technology.

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